This study published in Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment investigated the constructs of PTSD, Complex PTSD (CPTSD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) among clients referred to a National Health Service trauma centre in Scotland. In ICD-11 CPTSD consists of six symptom clusters: three PTSD criteria of reexperiencing, avoidance, and hypervigilance, in addition to three disturbances of self-organization (DSO) symptoms, namely, emotional dysregulation, interpersonal difficulties, and negative self-concept. A latent class analysis identified three distinct classes all of which had high endorsement of PTSD symptoms: a High CPTSD/High BPD class with high endorsement of DSO and BPD symptoms; a Moderate CPTSD/Moderate BPD class with moderate endorsement of DSO and BPD symptoms, and a Low CPTSD/Low BPD class with low endorsement of DSO and BPD symptoms. The High and Moderate CPTSD/BPD classes were associated with greater exposure to multiple, interpersonal traumas earlier in life and showed higher functional impairment. Based on this treatment-seeking clinical sample, these findings suggest that there is a significant amount of overlap between CPTSD and BPD symptoms.
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